Skip to content

Brief history of Israel/Palestine

November 11, 2013

fertile cresA BRIEF HISTORY OF THE LAND

Israel is part of ‘The Fertile Crescent’ = the cradle of Western Civilisation.

a land bridge between Europe, Asia and Africa.

PREHISTORIC PERIOD (before 3200 BCE) The Stone Age. 

evidence of humans living here 300,000 years ago in small farming villages.

BRONZE AGE (3200-1200 BCE)

cities.

Empires – Egypt.

Slaves escaped Egypt, led by Moses, settled in Israel.

believed that God had given them this land

exterminated the Canaanites who lived there,

IRON AGE (120-334 BCE)

dispute over who should be the next king

country split in two.

Northern part invaded by Assyria (North of present day Iraq) in 722

Southern part invaded by Babylon (South of present day Iraq) in 586

Babylon became part of the Persian Empire (Persia = present day Iran) and the Jews were allowed to return to the country of their ancestors and to rebuild Jerusalem

HELLENISTIC PERIOD (333-64 BCE)

Greek, Alexander the Great invaded.

Antiochus 4th set up a statue of himself in the Temple

demanded that pigs be sacrificed there.

forbade circumcision

revolution was led by Judas Maccabi (‘the hammer’).

ROMAN PERIOD (64 BCE – 324 CE)

Roman Empire e.g. Herod and Pilate in charge.

Jesus lived in this period.

rebellion in 66- 70

last outpost = mountain-top fortress Masada

second rebellion led by Bar Kochba in 132-135

Romans wiped out the Jews in Jerusalem and renamed it Aelia Capitolina

(‘Aelia’ was Emperor øadrian’s family name, ‘Capitolina’ was the Roman god Jupiter).  A few Jews remained in the Northern area round Galilee.

BYZANTINE PERIOD (324-640 CE)

Roman emperor Constantine converted to Christianity

Churches replace Roman temples – built on most of the places mentioned in the bible

EARLY ARAB PERIOD (640-1099 CE)

Invasion from Persia (present day Iran).

Jerusalem fell to Caliph Omar in 637.

Byzantium corrupt so many welcomed the muslim invaders as better rulers.

The Dome of the Rock was built in the Seventh Century on the site where Muhammad was believed to have been taken to heaven.  The nearby Al Aqsa Mosque was built in the Eighth Century.

CRUSADER PERIOD (1099-1260 CE)

Turks invaded and stopped Christians going on pilgrimage

the Crusades fight to recover the holy sites from the Turks.

MARMLUK PERIOD (1260 – 1517 CE)

The Marmluks = Turkish slaves who defeated Genghis Khan.

Marmlukes expelled the Crusaders.

OTTOMAN PERIOD (1517 – 1918 CE)

Turkish Empire

Since 70 CE, Jews had lived in various countries and had been the victims of racism.

Zionist movement believed the Jews would only be safe if they had their own country

Small groups of Jews bought land in Israel

MANDATE PERIOD (1918 CE – )

British rule during World War 1.

917, Balfour (Secretary of State for Foreign Affairs) wrote to a leading Jew promising that the land could become a Jewish homeland.

America has many Jews so presidents want their votes; however, they need Arab oil

Jews set up the State of Israel in 1948 in a small part of the land.

fought the Arabs in 1956, 1967 and 1973 to capture larger areas Fighting continues between Jews and Arabs.

Many Palestinians refuse to pay taxes to the Israeli Government

To return to the home page, click on the header at the top of this page.

Advertisements
Leave a Comment

Leave a Reply

Fill in your details below or click an icon to log in:

WordPress.com Logo

You are commenting using your WordPress.com account. Log Out / Change )

Twitter picture

You are commenting using your Twitter account. Log Out / Change )

Facebook photo

You are commenting using your Facebook account. Log Out / Change )

Google+ photo

You are commenting using your Google+ account. Log Out / Change )

Connecting to %s

%d bloggers like this: